It’s 12.13 a.m. I’m watching the end credits for “Doctor Strange” roll off my TV screen. The house is quiet of course, but I’m still wide awake- as is my norm. Twenty two years working in kitchens has turned me into a nightowl.
Personal Aside: Has anyone else seen that second little end of credits scene in this movie?
Anyway. Because it’s late, I’m thinking of material for my next YouTube video, and am dumping a whole pile of pictures of Venus into Adobe Premier Pro; my video production software. All of these thumbnails are arranged in a disorderly mess before me, calling me to the second planet from our Sun. It’s a fascinating place, and I have been in a real Venus mood for the last few months.
A Hell born of Paradise
Venus is a dead world like it’s unfortunate sibling Mercury. Both planets are perilously close to our sun. Mercury lies only 58 million km from Sol and Venus is still uncomfortably close at 108.2 million km. However this cloud coated beauty orbits serenely on the very inner cusp of what astronomers call the “Goldilocks Zone”; that mystical band within which temperatures are mild enough for water to remain liquid on a planet’s surface. To our knowledge, only Earth possesses water in this state; although water is actually abundant in the Solar System. A previous post: Water, water everywhere explores this in more detail.
For Earth, the porridge is just right. Venus is a little too close: too hot, and Mars is a little distant: too cold. Venus today is a blistering, scorched wasteland, where on a cold day the temperature is a hellish 460 degrees Celsius and the atmospheric pressure at “sea level” is 92 times that on Earth. Put it this way; if you were standing on the surface of Venus it would be equivalent to being 1.6 kilometres under the ocean.
From a compositional point of view Venus is very similar to Earth, and in fact the two have been referred to as sister planets.
The Evil Twin?
Venus and Earth are remarkably similar in terms of mass, gravity and composition. Note: composition can only be gleaned from inferences made by measurements made of the planet’s density, but there is a general consensus that Venus and Earth are quite similar in this respect. Structurally Venus is also believed to be kin to Earth, with a rocky crust about 50 km thick and a core of metallic iron, believed to be in a liquid state.
Ok, some people say. So we know Venus is obviously not that similar to Earth. Cut to the chase, Ben. Why can’t we go there?
Good! I was waiting for someone to ask that! Even if it was an imaginary reader!
Venus is nasty. Venus is a bad place. Perched in a nearly perfect circular orbit around the sun (itself unusual) Venus should just scrape into the habitability club. Some scientists even believe that Venus once was covered with oceans and continents. Just imagine it!! Fly over those oceans with your mind. Leave the CGI and the billion dollar special effects to the big hitters in Hollywood and YouTube land and join me..
A long time ago, on a planet not so far away….
It’s morning. You’re on ancient Earth, circa the early Archean Period. Your clock is useless because the days are much shorter. You throw it outside your time machine (any design- it’s your imaginary ship!) and get some breathing equipment slapped over your face. The Great Oxygenation Events haven’t happened yet and won’t for a long time. The atmosphere is not much fun: consisting of mainly methane and ammonia. Fun and games if you’re one of the extremophile microorganisms slowly spreading across the Earth. Not so much if you’re a human from the twenty first century.
Keep that breathing equipment in good shape. You’ll really need it where you’re going.
Well, ancient Earth is nothing if not picturesque, that’s for sure. No harm in taking a few photos before you embark on your voyage out to Venus.
Time to go.
Your little ship skips across the void in no time. No special effects budget can out maneuver imagination! You can’t help but fidget as you approach earth’s sister:
Venus looks decidedly different to how it’s represented in twenty first century textbooks and media. The all enveloping shroud of thick sulfuric acid clouds isn’t blanketing the planet. That’s a relief. An atmosphere somewhat similar to the one you left behind on Archean Earth is here. Atmospheric pressure seems to be tolerable. Are those clouds you see, wafting across a vast equatorial ocean? Your face is pushed so hard against the window of your tiny spaceship you’re about to crack the glass. Decompression NOT FUN. You better go down….
At this juncture in the history of Venus (right now it’s not even 1 billion years old) the planet really could be called Earth’s twin. A shallow global ocean swirls gently, glinting brilliantly in the afternoon Venusian sunlight.
Afternoon of course is a meaningless concept here. You look at your clock again, and clench your teeth. Again it’s useless! Why did you bring it?
Because you’re a character in this tale and the Author (that’s me) thought it would be a cool plot device, allowing the reader to see how days and years have changed- both on Earth and Venus- over billions of years. You jettison the clock for real this time. No one is ever going to find it.
A day on on Venus is equivalent to about 234 earth days. That’s right. On earth someone would ask you the time, to which you might reply “11.30”. On Venus a correct response might be “half past April.” As if that’s not bizarre enough, the year here is 225 Earth days long. That’s right! A year is shorter than a day here!
The planet really is earth-like. The planet has a messy, turgid magnetic field. In a few hundred million years that field will be gone. Some kind of event has taken place (or will take place) that basically is a killing blow for the planet and anything that may live here. For now the magnetic field is allowing liquid water to pool on the surface- lots of it too.
You’re standing on some charred volcanic ridges, looking out over a still, glassy ocean, which glints in the sunlight. No waves crash against the walls. Venus has no moon. No moon, no tides. This ocean is more like a still lake, filling shallow volcanic plains between the planet’s three main highland regions, or “Continents”. In the distant future scientists and missions to Venus may have detected the presence of granite down here on the surface. Granite is found in huge quantities on Earth, and forms in the presence of both water and tectonic activity.
The atmosphere is clearly substantial enough for liquid water to be stable. You’re dipping your toes in that water right now! Is anything alive here? You feel a pang of loss for this world. Looking out across this nameless ocean it really seems plausible that right now things are oozing or eating their way across some shallow seabed somewhere, competing for resources which one day will be gone, choked in sulfuric acid clouds and incinerated by oven like heat and pressure.
Earth has had a handful of truly epic extinction events. The greatest extinction event of all is responsible for the rise of almost all modern life. A pollutant began appearing in our atmosphere. It’s ironic that perhaps the most lethal pollutant every pumped into our atmosphere wasn’t carbon dioxide or methane. It wasn’t hydroflurocarbons.
It was oxygen. That’s right.
Cyanobacteria appeared, spreading quickly across the globe, producing free oxygen as a metabolic waste product. Unfortunately all other life on earth at the time was anaerobic; meaning they didn’t require oxygen for their metabolism. When cyanobacteria began to massively outcompete all other life, oxygen levels both in the oceans and earth’s atmosphere reached saturation. Almost all life on earth perished.
At this point in time you can only guess what’s out there in that Venusian sea. Isn’t it fun to speculate though?
It’s time to suit up and fire up your time machine. 2017 is waiting for you, and a world straight from the fevered imaginings of some tortured 16th century poet awaits you….
Next time, let’s wander across Hell.